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Communication Satellites And Computer system Networks

Communication Satellites And Computer system Networks

A communication satellite television which is sometimes abbreviated to COMSAT can be an artificial satellite to activate in space for the purpose of telecommunications. Modern conversation satellites use diverse orbits incorporating geostationary orbits, Molina orbits, different elliptical orbits and low earth orbits. They are also used for mobile phone applications such as for example communications to ships, cars, planes and handheld terminals and for Tv set and radio broadcasting, for which application of other technology such as cable is impractical or unattainable.

HISTORY OF COMMUNICATION SATELLTES

The first artificial satellite was the soviet sputnik 1, introduced on October 4, 1957, and equipped with an onboard radio transmitter that worked on two frequencies, 20.005 and 40.002 MHz The 1st definition of valence electrons American satellite to relay communication was project rating in 1958, that used a tape recorder to retail outlet and ahead voice messages. It had been used to send text messages like greetings etc. After that NASA introduced an Echo satellite in 1960. Telstar was the first active, direct relay communications satellite.

SATELLITE COMMUNICATION IN Laptop NETWORKS.

A multi-node, satellite interaction system employing a modified broadcast program is disclosed for used with distributed computer networks. The system consists of a plurality of network nodes (personal computers) each with the capacity of transmitting to any various other node at a single unique frequency, but with the capacity of receiving from all other nodes simultaneously. Each node in the n-node network comprises a single transmitter with up to n-1 receivers, with each node capable of arbitrating a plurality of requests for transmission access. The invention encompasses a way for communicating digital details in a network of geographical distributed pcs.

GEOSTATIONARY SATELLITES

A satellite television in a geostationary orbit appears to be in a fixed posture to an earth-established observer. In 1945, Arthur C. Clarke describes a finished communication system that used manned geostationary satellites, including the orbits, solar panels, radio frequencies and start procedures. Nonetheless it was failed, because these satellites were impractical as a result of impossibility of adding power-hungry, fragile, vacuum tube amplifiers into orbit. The initial communication satellite, Telstar was launched in July 1962. In that case communication Satellites have become a multibillion dollar organization and the only facet of outer space that has become highly how to write a fact sheet portable. These high-flying satellites are called GEO (Geostationary Earth Orbit) satellites. Geostationary satellites space much closer than 2 degrees in the 360-level equatorial plane, to avoid interference. With an area of 2 degrees, there can only be 360/2 =180 of the satellites in the sky at kinds. However, each transponder can use multiple frequencies and polarization to raise the available bandwidth. Modern satellite television was weighing up 4000kg and consuming some kilowatts of electric power produced by the solar power panels. ITU has allocated selected frequency bands to satellite television users. The main bands are listed as C band was the first ever to be designated for professional satellite site visitors and the upper case one for uplink site visitors. To allow site visitors to go both ways as well, two channels is required, one going each way. These bands are overcrowded because they are also used by the normal carriers for terrestrial microwave links. The L and S bands had been added by worldwide agreement in 2000.

Band

Downlink

Uplink

Bandwidth

Problems

L

1.5GHZ

1.6GHZ

15MHZ

Low bandwidth; crowded

S

1.9GHZ

2.2GHZ

70MHZ

Low bandwidth; crowded

C

4.0GHZ

6.0GHZ

500MHZ

Terrestrial interference

Ku

11GHZ

14GHZ

500MHZ

Rain

Ka

20GHZ

30GHZ

3500MHZ

Rain, equipment cost

The subsequent highest band available to commercial telecommunication carriers is the Ku band. Bandwidth allocated in the Ka band for commercial traffic, however the equipment needed to use it is still expensive. A modern satellite has around 40 transponders, each with an 80-MHZ band width. The primary geostationary satellites had a single beam that illuminated about 1/3 of the earthA?A?a�sA�A?a�zA?s area called footprint.

MEDIUM-EARTH ORBIT SATELLITES

MEO (Medium-Earth Orbit) satellites tracked as undertake the sky. These are less than GEOs; they have more compact footprint on the ground and require less strong transmitters to attain them.

LOW-EARTH ORBIT

LEO (LOW EARTH ORBIT) satellite due to their rapid motion, large numbers of them is necessary for a complete program. In this section we will analyze, two aimed at voice connection and one aimed at internet service. LEO earth satellites happen to be less expensive to start into orbit than geostationary satellites. A grou8p of satellites working in concert is a Satellite television constellation.

GLOBAL STAR

An iridium alternative design is global celebrity. It predicated on 48 LEO satellites. Nonetheless it runs on the different switching scheme than that of iridium. Global star uses a traditional bent-pipe design. The decision originating at the North Pole is usually sent back to earth and picked up by the large ground station at SantaA?A?a�sA�A?a�zA?s Workshop. The call is routed via a terrestrial network to the ground station nearest the cal lee and provided by a bent-pipe connection. The good thing about global star scheme can be that it puts much of the complexity on the floor, where it is better to manage.

MOLNIYA ORBIT

The Molniya orbit is designed in order that the satellite spends the great majority of its period over the far northern latitudes, where its floor footprints moves only slightly. Its period is half day, in order that the satellite is designed for operation for eight hours every second revolution. The Molniya satellites are typically used for telephony and Television set services over Russia.

HOW SATELLITE COMMUNICATION Functions?

The concept of satellite television based network is certainly to transmit and obtain signal from ground stations. The purpose of satellite connection is to make use of it for video transmission and sharing. In basic words a satellite television is a unit which revolves around the planet earth either for collecting beneficial information or for helping transfer of details.

HOW Perform SATELLITES COMMUNICATE?

Satellites communicate through a complex system of telemetry that connects and transmits indicators between satellites and earth-bound stations. This technique begins with telemetry, tracking and order (TT&C) subsystem which tracks and directs indicators. TT&C produces transmission that are directly commensurable to the quantity that is being measured, encoding and transmitting these signal to distant stations on earth.

APPLICATIONS OF COMMUNICATION SATELLITES

The applications of connection satellites are,

Telephone

Satellite Television

Fixed Service Satellite

Direct Broadcast satellites

Satellite radio

Mobile satellite technologies

Amateur radio

Satellite internet

Military uses

Navigation

TELEPHONE

The first software for conversation satellites was in intercontinental extended distance telephony. The general public switched telephone network relays calls from landline telephones to an earth station where they happen to be transmitted to geostationary satellite.

SATELLITE TELEVISION

The satellite television is relatively few indicators of large band width to numerous receivers being a more precise meet for the capacities of geosynchronous comsats. Two satellite types are being used for North American Television and radio that are Direct Broadcast Satellite television (DBS) and Fixed Support Satellite (FSS).

DIRECT BROADCAST SATELLITE

It is a communication satellite that transmits to small DBS satellite meals. It is often 18 to 24 ins or 45 to 60 cm in a diameter.

SATELLITE RADIO

A Satellite radio offers sound services in some countries, mostly in USA. Mobile services let listeners to roam a continent, hearing the same audio tracks programming anywhere. A Satellite television radio or subscription radio(SR) is a digital radio signal that is broadcast by a communications satellite, which covers a very much wider geographical range than terrestrial radio signals.

MOBILE SATELLITE TECHNOLOGIES

Initially available for broadcast to stationary TV receivers. Some manufactures have introduced specialized antennas for cellular reception of DBS tv set. Such mobile phone DBS antennas are being used by jet-blue Airways for Direct Tv set, which passengers can take on board on LCD screens mounted in the seats.

CONCLUSION

Communication satellite has actually paved method for many technologies to emerge and its progress in technology radically decreases the expense of deploying a satellite television. Users of satellite devices will benefit from new service options and stability in terms current satellites and their replacement. It is very useful to economics of constructing and operating communication satellites. To conclude, I was really benefited by getting ultimately more knowledge using this method assignment by researching on Connection satellite.